I'm not a domain expert like most people in this forum, but I have created XML schemas using object oriented (OO) principles in the past; the same capability exists with JSON schemas.
The important thing is to create a heirarchy of schemas, starting with a generalized schema definition that applies to all participants at the upper layer, and inherit that schema as one starts diving deeper. This permits specialized schemas at lower layers that meets the needs of smaller groups, but as one moves up the schema hierarchy, one finds common parent objects that can be shared with other groups.
If it is impossible to create it in a hierarchy for all group participants, it is possible to start with a smaller general schema that meets everyone's needs and then each specialized group can create independent hierarchies, which can then be linked as necessary (https://json-schema.org/learn/getting-started-step-by-step.html#references)
This capability of inheriting parent schemas, and linking to external schemas, allows simultaneous - yet separate - development by many groups without having to involve everyone all the time. You do need to bring together many people for a short while for the more general parts of the schema at higher levels; but once defined, it can segment out to smaller groups as specialized schema branches/hierarchies are defined.