One of the questions that came up at the BYO Datalogger Welcome meetup is regarding SD card reliability. Since it was a bit of a detailed topic, we decided to move it to the forums.
Micro SD cards are used by the Wildlogger as a storage medium and there was a question that was related to the reliability of SD card storage. It's actually quite relevant so here's an attempt at an explanation.
SD cards are based on flash memory which, from a reliability standpoint, means they have two weak points. The first is that there's a fixed amount of times they can be written to and erased. That's usually around 100,000 times per location. This might sound like a lot, but there was a pretty consistent issue on the Raspberry Pi where SD cards would get corrupted frequently.
This actually turned out to be because the Raspberry Pi (rPi) used the SD card similarly to how a PC uses the hard drive and the operating system would regularly write and delete log files. It became enough of a problem that now there are well known solutions to disable log file writing on the rPi. Note that there's nothing wrong with using the Raspberry Pi, but you might want to keep this in mind, in case you need a high reliability application. For more of an explanation on the specific issue and it's fix, you can find it here.
There are also specialty SD cards that have additional hardware that distribute accesses to the SD card so that it minimizes writes to the same location and spreads out the wear on the card. These are called "wear-leveling" SD cards and are mainly used in high reliability applications. FYI, wear leveling is also a standard feature on solid state drives since there's a potential that there will be many read and write accesses to them. For more info on wear leveling SD cards, you can find it here.
As for our application, I don't foresee SD card wear as a major problem in most applications. By the way, these are also "famous last words". But if you use it in a way where you deploy it for some time in the field, then retrieve the data from it, the SD card should last on average for 100,000 deployments. If each deployment lasts one day for data collection, that would be 273 years. I find that my microSD cards rarely last longer than one year, but that's because they're so small, I normally misplace them which is the second weak point (and a strong point). For more information on SD card lifespan, you can find it here.
There are other things that can cause SD card corruption though. These can be software bugs that interrupt SD card writing or stop them prematurely, a sudden power loss or glitch during a write operation, electrostatic discharge (you shock the SD card), an overvoltage event, wetness on the circuit board (ie: high humidity or morning dew), etc. These are mostly field deployment issues that would hopefully be uncovered in piloting the design, which we'll be covering in a later module.
One of the main drawbacks of using an SD card is that in a low power system, ie: you're hoping to run for 6 months to 1 year on a single charge, it's often the highest current consumer. This is true for the Wildlogger board where even using a microSD card with good power numbers increases the current consumption by about 300 uA. Using a cheap Chinese microSD card increases it by almost 1 mA.
As a rule of thumb, we generally try to get our low power systems under 1 mA in sleep mode and typically around 200 uA (0.2 mA). At 1 mA in sleep mode, this translates to a theoretical maximum battery life of 83 days using a standard 2000 mA-hr alkaline battery. A realistic battery life would be around 40 days at 1 mA. This is why the microSD card starts becoming the limiting factor in a low power system. If what I just said sounds like Martian to you, I recommend checking out Module 1 where Jacinta discusses all the terminology and how we calculate theoretical and realistic battery life. For more info on microSD cards and current consumption, you can find it here.
Note: their microSD card current consumption numbers are very low because they're measuring just the current consumed by the microSD card. We measure our current consumption at the battery or directly from the energy source. The current that gets to the battery goes through power regulation and other circuitry before getting to the microSD card which is why I quote higher numbers. Also I couldn't get exact microSD matches to the ones they were using although I did test with a Lexar, Sandisk, as well as cheapie ones from China.
Anyways, hope that explains a bit about SD cards and reliability (and power consumption). Feel free to comment or add questions below.